environmental research laboratories established in nuclear power plants, long before the beginning of the reactors. These testing laboratories and establish a baseline level of radioactivity in and around the site before the start of operation of the facility, then continue to monitor the area to ensure there is no excessive increase of radioactivity at a later date. channels of food and water leading to exposure of radioactivity by the population around the area are determined and monitoring methods are in place to ensure there is no increase in exposure due to operation of the plant. Environmental Research Laboratory has been operating since 1974 in the Kalpakkam reactor during mapping operations began only in 1983. The laboratory has studied the level of radioactivity in the materials associated with radiation exposure of humans (eg, cereals, vegetables, milk, seafood, water, air, salts, etc..) Level monitoring radioactivity of these materials takes place in а continuous for 32 km radial distance from the factory. ambient radiation levels are checked gauges and doses of radiation exposure are measured quarterly using thermoluminescent dosimeters а number of stations spread over 32 km radial zone. Samples from the field are processed in the laboratory and examined the level of radioactivity, radiochemistry analytical methods and advanced nuclear systems of counting. These levels are directly compared to baseline established prior to the MAPS has been launched. With the help of a system designed for consumption statistics Ка1раккат area, annual consumption of radioactivity member а representative of the population and, therefore, the exposure doses calculated using the measured level of radioactivity of materials in the food chain and environment. They are evaluated in comparison with the dose of exposure in the pre-operational. These methods have provided valuable data and demonstrate that the actions of MAPS has been а very small and negligible radiological impact on the environment. Similar results have been established in other nuclear plants in India.
In real life every day, in what areas and objects of daily use have met for radioactivity? What other areas where nuclear energy is used?
Radiation has always been present throughout the environment. Each person is also a natural radioactivity of potassium is an essential component of tissue and body fluids and contains small quantities of radioactive isotopes а К-40. In a small area of land а х 40 m 10 m surrounding а typical house is contained in the soil to a depth of 1 m, 2 kg of uranium, thorium б kg and 0.8 kg К-40, which are all radioactive and nuclear-related products with his daughter. Of course, U and Th concentrations are too low for economic recovery! Not only radioactive materials like uranium, thorium, radium and potassium, everywhere on earth, the sun is constantly streaming to Earth from space as cosmic rays. Our bodies also contain radioactive С-14, which is produced in the atmosphere and cosmic radiation absorbed by living organisms. Aero air travel, passengers are exposed to levels higher than normal due to cosmic radiation has increased (to 1640 m altitude cosmic radiation dose is about twice the sea level).
natural background radiation from natural radioactivity in soil and cosmic rays depends on the place until ten а factor. Irradiation of the population around nuclear power plants and the effects of the action proves to be a factor а 30 times lower than the average exposure to natural radiation.
Besides electricity generation, nuclear energy is used to provide heat for industry to food processing, and power supplies for transport (ships, submarines and spacecraft). There are also many other uses of radiation and nuclear radiation.