Pollution and Health: September 2010

Wednesday, September 29, 2010

safe distance of a nuclear reactor

figure via eoearth

How close to a nuclear reactor, the radioactivity is monitored? What methods and measures of protection provided?

environmental research laboratories established in nuclear power plants, long before the beginning of the reactors. These testing laboratories and establish a baseline level of radioactivity in and around the site before the start of operation of the facility, then continue to monitor the area to ensure there is no excessive increase of radioactivity at a later date. channels of food and water leading to exposure of radioactivity by the population around the area are determined and monitoring methods are in place to ensure there is no increase in exposure due to operation of the plant. Environmental Research Laboratory has been operating since 1974 in the Kalpakkam reactor during mapping operations began only in 1983. The laboratory has studied the level of radioactivity in the materials associated with radiation exposure of humans (eg, cereals, vegetables, milk, seafood, water, air, salts, etc..) Level monitoring radioactivity of these materials takes place in а continuous for 32 km radial distance from the factory. ambient radiation levels are checked gauges and doses of radiation exposure are measured quarterly using thermoluminescent dosimeters а number of stations spread over 32 km radial zone. Samples from the field are processed in the laboratory and examined the level of radioactivity, radiochemistry analytical methods and advanced nuclear systems of counting. These levels are directly compared to baseline established prior to the MAPS has been launched. With the help of a system designed for consumption statistics Ка1раккат area, annual consumption of radioactivity member а representative of the population and, therefore, the exposure doses calculated using the measured level of radioactivity of materials in the food chain and environment. They are evaluated in comparison with the dose of exposure in the pre-operational. These methods have provided valuable data and demonstrate that the actions of MAPS has been а very small and negligible radiological impact on the environment. Similar results have been established in other nuclear plants in India.

In real life every day, in what areas and objects of daily use have met for radioactivity? What other areas where nuclear energy is used?

Radiation has always been present throughout the environment. Each person is also a natural radioactivity of potassium is an essential component of tissue and body fluids and contains small quantities of radioactive isotopes а К-40. In a small area of land а х 40 m 10 m surrounding а typical house is contained in the soil to a depth of 1 m, 2 kg of uranium, thorium б kg and 0.8 kg К-40, which are all radioactive and nuclear-related products with his daughter. Of course, U and Th concentrations are too low for economic recovery! Not only radioactive materials like uranium, thorium, radium and potassium, everywhere on earth, the sun is constantly streaming to Earth from space as cosmic rays. Our bodies also contain radioactive С-14, which is produced in the atmosphere and cosmic radiation absorbed by living organisms. Aero air travel, passengers are exposed to levels higher than normal due to cosmic radiation has increased (to 1640 m altitude cosmic radiation dose is about twice the sea level).

natural background radiation from natural radioactivity in soil and cosmic rays depends on the place until ten а factor. Irradiation of the population around nuclear power plants and the effects of the action proves to be a factor а 30 times lower than the average exposure to natural radiation.

Besides electricity generation, nuclear energy is used to provide heat for industry to food processing, and power supplies for transport (ships, submarines and spacecraft). There are also many other uses of radiation and nuclear radiation.

via nuceng

Saturday, September 25, 2010

Policies to overcome air pollution

For us who live in big cities will be familiar with air pollution from vehicle fumes. every day we face it. like in the pictures below. just imagine how bad our respiratory tract. exactly who is wrong? we or the government. Is there no policy that addresses this? if there is why there are still many vehicles that emit smoke like that? Try one of whom?

figure via dailymail

figure via molescroftprimary

figure via rickyds905

picture of wind power

Many people in today busy thinking about the impact of pollution that is very chronic. but whether they or we are concerned to act quickly without having to wait a long time and comment. actually there are many friendly energy for our lives, such as solar energy, wind and even water. Wind energy used by many people in Europe and America as an energy substitute, as shown in the picture below. why do not we try it from now.

Wind as an energy source. figure via treehugger

Windmills as to generate electrical energy. figure via saferenvironment

Windmill offshore. figure via reuk

One type of windmill. figure via reuk

Wind turbines on Highway. figure via keetsa

Windmills Element. figure via globalgwa

alternative energy from wind

Wind energy is produced using wind generators to use wind energy. It is becoming increasingly popular worldwide as a source of energy on a large scale, even though it still only represents less than one percent of global energy consumption. The items listed below to explore wind energy and its use worldwide.

via alternative-energy

Friday, September 24, 2010

How it works water reactor system

Water Reactor System

Boiling Water reactor System

Process in The Water Reaction System

Pressurized water reactors and boiling water are two main types of generators, which the United States. uses to generate electricity. pressurized water reactors are composed of a single installation of 200 fuel elements cadded zircaloy fuel "pins." These "anchors" is immersed in a large stainless steel tank containing ordinary "light" water. Light water serves both as coolant and moderator. Light water has a greater capacity to absorb neutrons than heavy water (D2O). This implies that increasing the percentage of 235U in the core. Uranium dioxide is the source of fuel for the reactor. The pressure vessel consists of a rod through the lid, light, water pressure, and heart of the reactor. The water temperature reaches about 270 degree Celcius without boiling, due to pressure of about 13.8 to 17.2 MPa. This pressure is maintained by a pressurizer. A "light" water circulates in a closed circuit with heat exchanger. This causes the water in a heat exchanger to heat and convert to steam. This steam one or more turbine generators, is condensed and pumped back into the steam generator. Another stream of water from lakes, rivers or cold, the steam is used to condense. It is necessary to disable the reactor completely remove the cover and replace the corresponding part of the axis of fuel to refuel, which takes place every 12 to 18 months. (See figure above)

There is a potential threat, with the possibility of cracks in the pipes of the cooling system. If this happens, there would be no way to prevent the reactor from overheating. Therefore, the danger, the reactors are surrounded by double walls of the building pressure and include a number of emergency cooling systems base.

A more effective way to remove heat is to allow the water to a boil. Coolant boiling water reactors of the reactor allows the heart to a boil. The steam generated is then separated, dried and sent directly to the turbines. After crossing generators, steam is condensed and transferred to the heart of reactor. As with a pressurized water reactor, boiling water reactor fuel U-235 enriched uranium dioxide. In addition, collection of steam is also present in the upper reactor. Yet a boiling water reactor, in common with a pressurized water reactor is that it must be stopped for refueling. (See figure above)

Regarding security, the entire reactor is housed in the first housing chamber, which contains, under the great ring-shaped tunnel filled with water a little. If water or steam to escape, he falls into the tunnel and condensed. In addition, the tunnel, there are several alarm systems in place.

via umich

Thursday, September 23, 2010

Know the structure of the earth's atmosphere

The Earth's atmosphere:
gas mixture to suspend certain solids and liquids.

Three common constant in the atmosphere:

-Salt - from Ocean Spray

Gas composition of the atmosphere:
- Nitrogen - 78% of atmosphere
- Oxygen - 21% of atmosphere
- Trace gases - 1% - Neon, Helium, Hydrogen, Methane, Carbon Dioxide

Creating the atmosphere:
The atmosphere is the result of a planetary degassing, a process in which gases such as carbon dioxide, water vapor, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen were released from inside the Earth and volcanoes other processes.

Structure of the Earth's atmosphere: (With the basis of space.)
Troposphere-ok. ground to 10 km (about 7 miles up)
- Where is the layer of the Earth.
- It contains 75% of our atmosphere of greenhouse gases
- Weather and clouds of smog occur in the troposphere
Stratosphere - 10 km - 45 km (about 7 miles, 30 miles)
- The ozone layer is here
- jet can be found here
- Little or no water vapor
Mesosphere - 45 km -95 km at the top (30 to 50 miles)
the coldest part of the atmosphere
Thermosphere - about 95 km to 500 km (50 miles up)
1. Hottest layer of the atmosphere.
lower layer called the ionosphere thermosphere
- Ionosphere with charged particles electronically.
- reflects radio waves
- The day of this layer distorts the radio waves emitted by the charges for a large number of particles of solar energy and causes a lot of static problems.
- At night, it is less loaded. Therefore, it is easier to hear the AM radio late at night
Exosphere - approximantly 500 km and beyond
The outer layer of the atmosphere over
Very few air molecules in this layer
The lack of clear boundaries between the layers and space

via williamsclass

Wednesday, September 22, 2010

Chemical waste can be collected

Chemical waste can be collected in different types of containers. NIH chemical waste contractor will provide 3 or 5 gallons cans, plastic safety solvent (a mixture of flammable solvents) 3 or 5 gallons of blue balloons waste plastic five-gallon plastic bucket liquids and gels, and solid waste. Glass and plastic bottles of different sizes can be used for collecting waste chemicals generated in small quantities. Scientists often empties buffer or solvent for chemical waste collection.
When you add a variety of chemical wastes in their garbage container, do not create incompatible mixtures. (For example: do not mix acid and alkalis, acids, cyanides, oxidizing and organic materials). incompatible chemicals can produce heat, pressure, fire, explosion, toxic gases or flammable gases. More information:
EPA Chemical Compatibility Chart
For more information on specific threats of chemical reaction, which can be expected to mix some of the common laboratory chemicals

Examples of chemical wastes are generally collected in safety boxes solvent
Ø flammable solvents in the process of DNA synthesis and HPLC
Ø acetonitrile, alcohol, xylene, acetone, ethyl acetate, hexane, etc.
Ø mixtures of flammable solvents, with 10% or less of halogenated solvents

Note: Do not acid in a solvent metal safety cans will rust!
HPLC users can access special management of the container to connect the HPLC

Examples of chemical waste collected in the balloons are usually made of blue plastic
Ø formalin solution
Ø Set / author waste
wastewater containing ethidium bromide and other impurities Ø
Ø aqueous buffer solutions may contain small amounts of sodium azide
Ø aqueous acid or alkaline (we do not collect together)
Ø diaminobenzidine solution
Ø compounds halogenated solvents and other organic solvents
Acid / alcohol solutions
Ø Acrylamide / bisacrylamide solutions
Ø phenol / chloroform

Examples of chemical waste is usually collected in buckets 5 gallons, plastic
Ø polyacrylamide gels, often containing biological stains
Ø an agarose gel, often contain ethidium bromide staining or other

Note: If you create small amounts of chemical waste, it can be collected in each glass bottles or plastic (not the introduction of hydrofluoric acid in a glass bottle, and some halogenated solvents may soften plastic bottles and cause damage over time).

Tuesday, September 21, 2010

Know how to work a nuclear reactor

Nuclear reactors is a control system that includes sustainable Nuclear chain reactions. The reactors are used for electricity generation, production of radionuclides (for industry and medicine), scientific research and military purposes. All the different models of jet engines for power generation to achieve the same simple task: a generator of Spinning. Many commercial reactors across the water to heat the fuel rods to produce steam and drive turbines. Some projects require passage through a pile of stones helium to produce fuel for heat. Another project uses a saline solution of sodium as a coolant.

- The heart of the reactor includes all nuclear fuel and generates heat. Containing low-enriched uranium (less than 5% of the control systems U-235), and building materials. The nucleus can contain hundreds of thousands of individual fuel rods.
- Refrigerant is the material that passes through the heart, to transfer heat from the fuel to the turbine. This can be water, heavy water, saline sodium, helium, or something else. In the U.S. fleet of reactors, water is the norm.
- The heat transfer of refrigerant turbine electricity, as fossil fuel plants.
- The spread is the structure that separates the reactor environment. They are usually dome-shaped, high density, steel-reinforced concrete. In Chernobyl, there is no container to speak.
- The cooling towers are required by some plants to drain excess heat, which can be converted into energy because of the laws of thermodynamics. These icons nuclear hyperbolic. They emit only pure water vapor.

This image (reproduced from the NRC) shows a nuclear reactor to heat water and turn a generator to produce electricity. Sytem recognize the essence of the property. Water in the radiator, and then you may be back on the water of the river, lake or sea will stack. As you can see, this water is not close to the radioactivity, which is in the reactor tank.

Thursday, September 2, 2010

Increase in Global Temperature

Effects or consequences, the increase in temperature causes climate change, which can be physical, ecological, social and economic. Observed evidence of climate change includes the instrumental record of temperature, sea levels, and decreased snow cover in northern Hemisphere.Some the impact of rising temperatures are already underway.

The melting of ice in the world. This includes mountain glaciers, ice caps of Greenland and West Antarctica and covering the Arctic sea ice. Number of penguins in the Antarctic has dropped from 32,000 to 11,000 breeding pairs in 30 years.

sea level unexpectedly 7-23 inches (18 to 59 cm) at the end of the century. Between 1993 and 2003, the rate has increased over the previous period to 3.1 [2.4 to 3.8] mm per year. and more melt at the poles could add between 4 and 8 inches (10-20 cm).

What Hurricane Katrina and other storms can become stronger.Floods and droughts become more frequent. Rainfall in Ethiopia, where droughts are already common, could decline by 10 percent over the next 50 years.

Fresh water is less available. If the Quelccaya ice cap in Peru continues to melt at its current rate, it will be gone by 2100, leaving thousands of people who rely on it for drinking water and electricity without any source either.Varieties diseases such as malaria carried by mosquitoes spread.Such.

Ecosystems are changing. According to scientists at the Wildlife Research Martyn Ob Bard, that since mid-1980, with less ice on which they live and fish for food, polar bears have got a lot thinner. Similarly, he found in the Hudson Bay polar bear biologist Ian Stirling. Fears that, if sea ice disappears, polar bears will be well.

via sea-climate

How Global Warming Process

Global warming is an increase in average temperature of the air at the Earth's surface and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation.

The global average temperature at Earth's surface rose 0.74 ± 0.18 ° C (1.33 ± 0.32 ° F) during the last 100 years. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concludes that "most of the observed increase in global average temperature since the mid-20th century is very likely due to the observed increase in anthropogenic gas concentrations greenhouse gases "by the greenhouse effect.

natural phenomena such as solar changes, combined with volcanoes probably had a small warming effect from pre-industrial times to 1950 and a small cooling effect since 1950. These basic conclusions have been endorsed by at least 30 scientific societies and academies of science, including all of the National Academy of Sciences of the major industrialized countries. Few scientists disagree with some of the main conclusions of the IPCC.

Climate model projections summarized by the IPCC indicate that average surface temperature will likely rise between 1.1 and then 6.4 ° C (2.0 to 11.5 degrees F) in the 21st century. The range of values using different scenarios of future emissions of greenhouse gases, as well as models with different climate sensitivity. Although most research focuses on the period up to 2100, warming and rising sea levels will continue over a thousand years, even if levels of greenhouse gas emissions are stabilized. Delay in the balance achieved is the result of the large heat capacity of the oceans.

Increasing global temperature will lead to sea level rise and should increase the intensity of extreme weather events and changes in the quantity and type of precipitation. Other effects of global warming include changes in agricultural yields, glacier retreat, species extinctions and increases in the ranges of disease vectors.

The scientific uncertainties remain, including the amount of warming expected in the future, and how warming and related changes depends on the region around the world. Currently, the political and public debate about what is on in the world, if any, action should be taken to reduce or reverse future warming or to adapt to the expected effects. Most national governments have signed and ratified the Kyoto Protocol to reduce emissions of greenhouse gas emissions.

via myclimatechange